According to statistics, about 80-85% of all traffic accidents accounted fall on cars. That is why car manufacturers in the design development of the car, paying maximum attention to its security. Because of the security of a single vehicle is directly dependent the overall safety on the roads. You must include the entire spectrum of potentially dangerous situations that can theoretically get a car, and they depend on many different factors.
Modern security systems provide both active and passive safety of the car and include a variety of devices: car airbags, anti-lock wheels (ABS), antiskid system, and many other tools. The reliability of the car help the driver not to get into trouble and to protect their lives and the lives of the passengers under the difficult conditions of modern roads.
In general, the safety of the vehicle divided into active and passive. What do these terms refer to? Active safety includes all the properties of the structure of car with which to prevent and / or reduced probability of an accident itself. Thanks to these properties, the driver can change the character of the movement — in other words, the car will not be unmanageable in an emergency.
Rational design of the machine is the key to its active safety. There great role played by the so-called «anatomical» seats, the same shape of the human body, heated windscreen and mirrors to prevent them from freezing, wipers on the headlights, sun visors. In addition, active safety by a variety of modern systems — ABS, controlling speed of the car as a whole and its separate mechanisms work, signaling faults, etc.
By the way, exterior color is also important for active safety car. The most secure in this respect are considered warm colors of the spectrum — yellow, orange, red — and white exterior color.
Increasing the visibility of the car at night is achieved by other means — for example, license plates and bumper applied to special reflective paint. Also, in order to enhance active safety to be well thought-out arrangement of devices on the dashboard and a good overview from the driver’s seat. It should be remembered that, according to the statistics of road, with accidents often damaged steering, doors, windshield and dashboard. If an accident does occur, the leading role in the situation goes to the techniques of passive safety.
The concept of passive safety included such properties of the vehicle structure to help reduce the severity of an accident, if it happens. Passive safety shows itself when the driver still can`t change the nature of the machine to prevent the accident, despite the measures taken of active safety.
The passive and active safety depends on a variety of design nuances. This could include, for example, the device of the bumper, the presence of arches, seat belts and airbags, severity level cabin and other conditions.
The front and rear of the vehicle, are generally less durable than the average — is also made of passive safety considerations. The middle part, where people are placed, usually protected by a rigid frame, front and rear soften the hit, and thereby reduce the load inertia. The auto frame structure with the same considerations are usually weakened ties and spars — they are made of brittle metals, which are destroyed or deformed on impact, taking on its core power and thus soften it.
Incidentally, to improve the performance of passive safety, engine of the car, usually mounted on the suspension arm. This design is help to avoid collision with the motor moving in the cabin. Due to this suspension the motor falls down under the floor of the body.
The rigid steering wheel also represents a danger for the driver, especially in head-on collisions. That is why the steering hub are made of large diameter, and covered by a special elastic shell. The soft lining and bellows partially absorb the impact energy.
One of the most simple and effective means of security at a low cost are belts. The installation of these belts is compulsory under the laws of many countries. No less widespread airbags — another simple tool that is designed to limit the rapid movement of people in the cabin at the time of impact. The airbags triggered only immediately on impact, protecting it from damage people’s heads and upper torso. The disadvantages of the airbag can be attributed quite a loud sound in the process of filling their gas. This noise is able to even damage the eardrum. In addition, the airbag is not enough to protect people in the car overturning and side impacts. That’s why finding ways to improve them constantly continues — for example, experiments are placed on replacement cushions so-called safety net (which should also limit the rapid movement of a person in the passenger compartment in a crash) — and other similar means.
As another simple and effective means of anti traumatic event of an accident can also be called reliable fastening seat — ideally it should withstand multiple overload (up to 20g). At a rear collision headrests protect passenger`s neck from serious injury. The legs of the driver in case of accident prevents damage to injury-preventing pedals — in a node in a collision, the pedals are separated from their mounts, softening the hard-hit. In addition to these precautions, modern cars are equipped with safety glass, the destruction of shatters into splinters not sharp and triplex. From the size of the car and the integrity of its frame also depends on the overall passive safety of the vehicle. Details of the frame in a collision shall not change their shape — the impact energy is absorbed by the other components. To verify all of these properties before you go into production, every vehicle is subjected to a special audit called crash tests. Thus, the system of passive safety of the car in its full configuration greatly increases the possibility of survival for the driver and passengers in case of accidents and helps them to avoid serious injury.comments powered by HyperComments
Дата: 27.06.15 Просмотры: 553