Acura, Infiniti, Lexus - news, reviews, tests
Active car safety
Active car safety is a combination of its constructive and operational properties aimed at preventing and reducing the likelihood of an emergency on the road.
The number of active safety systems includes:
- The anti-lock braking system is a system that prevents the wheels from blocking the car when braking. Its main purpose is to prevent the loss of control of the vehicle under severe braking, as well as to avoid sliding the car. The ABS system significantly reduces the stopping distance and allows the driver to maintain control over the car during emergency braking, that is, if this system is available, it becomes possible to perform sharp maneuvers during the braking process. ABS is a significant plus in ensuring active safety of vehicles. Now, ABS can also include an anti-slip system, an electronic stability control system and an emergency braking assistance system. In addition to cars, ABS is also installed on motorcycles, trailers and wheeled chassis of aircraft.
- Traction control system (traction control, traction control system) - designed to eliminate the loss of traction of wheels with the road by controlling the slippage of the drive wheels. APS greatly simplifies driving on a wet road or in other conditions of insufficient grip.
- Electronic stability control (Stability Control System) is an active safety system that prevents the vehicle from being driven by the computer's control of the torque of the wheel (at the same time one or more). Is an auxiliary system of the car. This system stabilizes the movement in dangerous situations, when it is likely or has already occurred loss of controllability of the car. ECU is one of the most effective car safety systems.
- Brake force distribution system. This system is a continuation of the ABS system (Anti-lock braking system). It differs in that it helps the driver to drive the car constantly, and not only in case of emergency braking. Since the degree of grip of the wheels with the road is different, and the braking force transmitted to the wheels is the same, the brake force distribution system helps the car maintain stability when braking, analyzing the position of each wheel and dosing the braking force on it. The system helps to maintain the trajectory, reduces the likelihood of skidding or drift during braking in a corner and on a mixed surface.
- Electronic differential lock. First of all, the differential is necessary to transfer torque from the gearbox to the wheels of the driving axle. It works when the drive wheels are firmly attached to the road. But, in situations where one of the wheels is in the air or on the ice, this wheel rotates, while the other, standing on a solid surface, loses all power. Differential lock is necessary to transfer torque to both its consumers (semiaxes or cardans).
In addition to the above systems of active vehicle safety, there are also auxiliary systems. They include:
- Parktronic (Parking radar, Acoustic Parking System, Ultrasonic parking sensor). The system uses ultrasonic sensors to measure the distance from the vehicle to the nearest objects. If the car is parked at a "dangerous" distance from obstacles, the system emits a warning sound or displays information about the distance on the display.
- Adaptive Cruise Control - is a device that maintains a constant speed of the car, automatically adding it when the speed decreases and decreasing the speed as it increases.
- Descent Assistance System.
- Lift assistance system.
- Parking brake (Handbrake, handbrake) is a system that is designed to keep the vehicle stationary in relation to the supporting surface. Handbrake helps when braking the car in parking and keeping it on slopes.
Passive car security
In addition, in addition to active safety there is also passive safety of the car - it is a set of design and operational properties of the car, aimed at reducing the severity of the accident.
It includes the following elements:
- seat belts and airbags;
- head restraints to protect passengers from the neck of the passenger when colliding with the rear of the car;
- energy-absorbing elements of the front and rear parts of the car, crumpled by impact (bumpers);
- foldable or soft elements of the front panel;
- folding steering column;
- trauma-safety pedal assembly (when the pedal collides, they separate from the attachment points and reduce the risk of damage to the driver's legs);
- safe glasses, which, when destroyed, scatter on a lot of fragile fragments and triplex;
- the removal of the engine and other units under the bottom of the car to prevent their penetration into the cabin during an accident, etc.
Thus, the passive safety system helps the driver and passengers survive in the event of an accident and avoid serious injuries.
By the way, the size of the car and the integrity of its frame are also an important means of passive safety. When collision, the carcass components should not change their shape, while other parts must absorb the impact energy. This is why before going into production, the structural integrity of the carcass for every car is tested. Each type of car is developed taking into account the requirements of passive safety, and their level is checked by means of crash tests.